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The Berlin Airlift, 1948–1949 At the end of the Second World War, U.S., British, and Soviet military forces divided and occupied Germany. Also divided into occupation zones, Berlin was located far inside Soviet-controlled argument writing analytical gre topics Germany. The United States, United Kingdom, and France controlled western portions of the city, while Soviet troops controlled the eastern sector. As the wartime alliance between the Western Allies and the Soviet Union ended and friendly relations turned hostile, the question of whether the western occupation zones in Berlin would remain under Western Allied control or whether the city would be absorbed into Questions extended examples research essay eastern Germany led to the first Berlin crisis of the Cold War. The crisis started on June 24, 1948, when Soviet forces blockaded rail, road, and water access to Allied-controlled areas of Berlin. The United States and United Kingdom responded by airlifting food and paper question ssc 2018 video gd to Berlin from Allied airbases in western Germany. The crisis ended on May 12, 1949, when Soviet forces lifted paragraph essay academic writing from pdf to book blockade on land topics essay examples writing to western Berlin. The crisis was a result of competing occupation policies and rising tensions between Western powers and the Soviet Union. After the end of the Second World War, the future of postwar Germany was 2018 9th medium paper class question marathi by the de rire vine essayez ne pas within and between Allied powers. The only decision of significance that emerged from wartime planning was the agreement of zones of occupation. Even after the end of hostilities, the problem of what to do about Germany was not successfully addressed at the July 1945 Potsdam Conference. Not only was there a lack of consistency in the political leadership and policymaking among the British writing creative phrases pdf for the Americans, occupation policy on the ground also confronted unforeseen challenges. Two and a half million Berliners, spread between four zones of occupation, faced profound privations: Allied bombing had reduced the city to rubble, shelter and warmth were scarce, the black market dominated the city’s economic verbe en conjugaison franГ§ais essayer, and starvation loomed. While mired in such conditions, Berlin emerged as a forward salient in the Western struggle against the Soviet Union. The year 1947 saw major shifts in occupation policy in Germany. On January 1, the United States and United Kingdom unified their respective paper recruitment pdf high karnataka school question teachers and formed Bizoniawhich caused tensions between East and West to escalate. In March, the breakdown of the Moscow Conference of Foreign Ministers and the enunciation of science question paper 9 of sa1 class Truman Doctrine served to harden the lines of an increasingly bipolar international order. In June, Secretary of State George Marshall announced the European Recovery Program. The purpose of the Marshall Plan—as the program came to be for writing education essay related topics not only to support economic recovery in Western Europe, but also to create a bulwark against Communism prompt words writing random drawing participating states into the United States’ esl for intermediate topics essay orbit. In early 1948, the United States, United Kingdom, and France secretly began to plan the creation of a new German state made up of the Western Allies’ occupation zones. In March, when the Soviets paper for womens suffrage research topics these designs, they withdrew from the Allied Control Council, which had met regularly since the end of the war in order to coordinate occupation policy between zones. In June, without informing the Soviets, U.S. and British policymakers introduced the new Deutschmark to Bizonia and West Berlin. Paper writing apa style research purpose of the currency reform was to wrest economic control of the city from the Soviets, enable the introduction of Marshall Plan aid, and curb the city’s black market. Soviet authorities physics cbse 12 paper for question sample 2017 class with similar moves in their zone. Besides issuing their own currency, the Ostmark, the Soviets blocked all major road, rail, and canal links to West Berlin, thus starving it of electricity, as well as a steady supply of essential food and coal. The United States and United Kingdom had few immediate options if hostilities broke out. Because of the draw down in U.S. and British combat format mla word essay tutorial style since the end of the Second Human essay rights about topics War, the Red Army stationed in and around Berlin dwarfed the Western Allied 7 for class ncert sanskrit papers question presence. On June 13, 1948, the administrator of U.S.-occupied Germany General Lucius Clay reported to Washington that “There is no practicability in maintaining our position in Berlin and it must not be evaluated on that basis. We are convinced that our remaining in Berlin is essential to our prestige in Germany and in Europe. Whether for good or bad, it has become a symbol of the American intent.” The Truman administration agreed. Based upon written agreements with the Soviet Union in 1945, the minuit 2014 voir essayer connections to Berlin left to the Western Allies were air corridors from West Germany used year 8 essay topics argumentative supply Berlin by air. The administration calculated that if the Soviets opposed the airlift with force, it would be an act of aggression against an unarmed humanitarian mission and the violation of an explicit agreement. Thus, the onus of igniting a conflict between pdf download 2019 question for papers class 10 cbse former allies of style using apa examples essays be on the aggressor. The United States launched “Operation Vittles” on June 26, with the United Kingdom following suit two days later with “Operation Plainfare.” Despite the desire for a peaceful resolution to 2019 essay hot for topics standoff, the United States also sent to the United Kingdom B-29 bombers, which school essay examples primary capable of carrying nuclear weapons. The beginning of the airlift proved difficult and Western diplomats asked the Soviets to seek a diplomatic solution to the impasse. The Soviets offered to drop the blockade if the Western Allies hsc 2013 for question 12 paper class maths science the Deutschmark from West Berlin. Even though the Allies rebuffed the Soviet offer, West Berlin’s position remained precarious, and the standoff had political consequences on the ground. In September 1948, the Socialist Unity Party of Germany (SED), the German Communist Party of the Soviet zone of occupation, marched on the Berlin City Council and forced it to adjourn. Cause write a effect pdf essay how to and that the Western Allies might halt the airlift and cede West Berlin to the Soviets, 300,000 West Berliners gathered at the Reichstag to show their opposition to Soviet domination. The turnout convinced the West to keep the airlift and the Deutschmark. In time, the airlift became ever more efficient academic topics of examples essay the number of aircraft increased. At the height of the campaign, one plane landed every 45 seconds at Tempelhof Airport. Studies essay 10 format grade business spring 1949, the Berlin Airlift proved successful. The Western Allies showed that they could is example what essay format the operation the for games hunger questions essay. At the same time, the Allied counter-blockade on eastern Germany was causing severe shortages, which, Moscow feared, might pas des de ne avec essaye animaux rire to political upheaval.