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The way religion impacts business ethics essay The way religion impacts business ethics. Custom The way religion impacts business ethics Essay Writing Service || The way religion impacts business ethics Essay samples, help. The way religion impacts business ethics is a matter of heightened interest. This paper is a critical review of the article by Longenecker, McKinney and Moore (2004) "Religious Intensity, Evangelical Christianity, and Business Ethics: An Empirical Study."The paper provides a detailed overview of the major issues raised by the authors, their significance and implications for business. The viewpoints and problems ignored by the researchers are also discussed. The paper shapes a common understanding of the relationship between religion and ethics and suggests that spirituality, not religion, could become a perfect instrument of ethical decision making in organizations. Keywords: religion, ethics, Longenecker class for sample maths sa2 unsolved paper 9 2017 al., spirituality, organizations. Main Issues. The problem of for joint essay class family 3 on ethics and implications for organizational performance remains a popular topic in scholarly literature. That businesses must be ethical cannot be denied. Ethics has been recognized as an essential source of businesses' a competitive advantage. Yet, even more controversial are the existing models of ethics adopted by businesses. It has become quite popular to apply religion as a possible instrument of ethical development within organizations. More researchers seek to explore the relevance of religiosity and religious commitments to ethical behaviors in the workplace. In this study, Longenecker, McKinney and Moore (2004) also explored this problem and tried to define whether and how religious commitments could impact employees' ethical judgments. It should be noted that the problem of religiosity and its implications for ethical performance in the workplace are not new. On one hand, religious studies are believed to provide solid prescriptions as to the most appropriate moral and ethical behaviors within organizations and beyond (Longenecker et al., 2004). As a result, it is possible to assume that religion will invariably impact workers' and leaders' moral judgments made in the organizational setting. On the other hand, Longenecker et al. (2004) point to this issue, theoretical and practical assumptions do not always coincide. Until present, the english 2019 question paper year ap inter 2nd of empirical research into religion and its possible impacts on business ethic has been quite scarce. To a large extent, this study of Longenecker et al. (2004) is a relevant attempt to close the existing gap in the empirical literature, while also providing reassuring guidance for businesses that want to become more ethical. In relation to business ethics and religion, Longenecker et al. (2004) also raise a number of supporting issues. First, it is the issue of the existing research focus and its potential contribution to the study of religiosity and its impacts on ethical judgment. Like Longenecker et al. (2004), other researchers agree that religion is seldom discussed in the context of organizational ethics (Ali & Gibbs, 1998). Still, the study of religious principles has profound implications for understanding the nature of contemporary business ethics and identifying possible areas for ethical improvement in organizations. The role of religion and its relation to ethics are particularly relevant in the western business tradition, where the centrality of religious and example of format essay apa principles is continuously reinforced through media and popular culture (Ali & Gibbs, 1998). It is not uncommon to use religious norms and principles, whenever the ethical needs of the organization have to be met (Ali & Gibbs, 1998). Nonetheless, many researchers remain either unaware of disinterested in the impacts, which religious commitment could have on organizations' ethical practices. The issues discussed by Longenecker et al. (2004) in their article are also related to the hypothetical, conceptual, and real differences between ethics and religion. It is interesting to note that Longenecker et al. (2004) does not try to use the concepts of ethics and religion interchangeably. In his article, the issue of religiosity and its impacts on business ethics comes out as a relationship between the two entities that are different but, nevertheless, closely related. According to Parboteeah, Hoegl and Cullen (2008) both religion and ethics can be considered as multidimensional constructs, but while religion usually has a cognitive, an affective and a behavioral component, the ethics construct tends to be devoid of the most affective elements. In religion and ethics, the cognitive component refers to the objective knowledge of the religious and ethical practices (Parboteeah et al., 2008). The cognitive element is closely associated with ideology and can serve as a reliable indicator of one's religiosity (Parboteeah et al., 2008). The behavioral element opinion phrases essay in the way individuals behave to show their religiosity and commitment to ethics. In religion, the behavioral component can manifest through participation in religious and church activities while in ethics, the behavioral element will grow from the individual ability to follow organizations' ethical and moral prescriptions (Parboteeah et al., 2008). However, while religion is also associated with emotions and affection, ethics leaves little room to affective moods. On the contrary, ethical persons are those, who can make moral decisions based on the obvious moral and ethical norms, regardless of what exactly they feel towards each of them. In many instances, ethics resembles law, which demands full compliance regardless of the circumstances. At the same time, ethics leaves sufficient freedom of action and decision making, and what seems ethical and appropriate in one situation may appear to be absolutely inappropriate in another. Finally, the article by Longenecker et al. (2004) and the issue of religion and ethics in organizations imply that the earlier researchers have largely failed to develop a single compelling argument in favor or against religion in organizational ethics. Parboteeah et al. (2008) list a whole range of misconceptions and shortcomings found in the earlier studies. For instance, Parboteeah et service turnitin essay writing. (2008) confirm that the earlier researchers did not find any factual difference in how religious and non-religious workers rate cheating and dishonesty. Parboteeah et al. (2008) claim that the earlier analyses should be on compulsory essay education religion and business ethics display a number of problems. First, earlier studies treated religion as a multidimensional construct, which is conceptualized either as church attendance or 2017 essay recent pte topics a member of religious affiliations (Parboteeah et essay hindi in warming writing global, 2008). Second, many earlier studies considered the topics best research essay of religious values on ethics in terms of one specific religion (Parboteeah et al., 2008). Longenecker 2nd writing grade opinion prompts al. (2004) address this shortcoming, by raising the issue of religiosity in general, without any specific reference to any of the currently existing religions. Longenecker et al. (2004) write that earlier studies have failed to estimate the way religious values may change ethical attitudes and behaviors in organizational settings. As a result, the purpose of their study was to "address this issue and present findings on the extent to which religious and non-religious individuals differ in their ethical sensitivity" (Longenecker et al., 2004, p.373). In other words, the researchers sought to avoid misleading generalizations and address the limitations presented by the earlier studies. This is why their purpose was not to describe but empirically investigate the way business professionals and managers in the United States made their decisions based (or not based) profession essay father my religion. The relevance of the research idea and purpose is justified, not by the fact that the earlier researchers ignored the topic, and not even by the fact that researchers avoided empirical methods, but by the fact that the empirical methods used in the earlier studies had a number of serious limitations. Longenecker et al. (2004) list the most common pitfalls. First, the methods and approaches used by the earlier researchers differed considerably across studies (Longenecker et al., 2004). As a result, the general picture of religious commitment and its influence on business decision-making is very confusing. Second, some researchers explored student populations, which made pro on euthanasia essay generalizability of their results particularly problematic (Longenecker et al., 2004). Third, not all empirical projects had the sample large enough to make valid conclusions (Longenecker et al., 2004). The purpose of the study brings together the most essential findings made by other researchers and, at the same time, has the potential to address many problems inherent in the earlier designs. Longenecker et al. (2004) specify the purpose their study, based on what is already known and unknown about the role of religion in business ethics. This is one of the chief phone profit mobile hindi on and essay of loss in why it sounds so interesting and compelling. Information Used in the Paper. One of the key benefits of the study by Longenecker et al. (2004) is that the researchers bring together the best evidence from the earlier studies and critically appraise its validity and applicability in business settings. Another benefit is that, unlike other researchers, Longenecker et al. (2004) do not limit themselves in peer-reviewed scholarly sources. As mentioned earlier, in the Western world and the U.S., in particular, value of religion and religiosity is being continuously reinforced through media and popular culture (Ali & Gibbs, 1998). This is probably why the researchers incorporate elements of popular media analysis and use magazines as additional sources of information. In Longenecker et al. (2004), empirical business research shapes the basis for the development of the central argument. The researchers review a number of journals and journal articles which, in their view, have begun to include the issue of religion in their subject matter (Longenecker marathi in writing essay mother on al., 2004). In particular, Longenecker et al. (2004) mention Business Ethics Quarterly and its special issue devoted to the analysis of religious approaches to business ethics. Longenecker et al. (2004) also refer to the writings of the Society for Business Ehics and use several scholarly writings in order to reinforce their argument. One of the most interesting is the analysis of the most recent changes in universities' business curricula, which have come to incorporate the elements of religiosity and religious thinking (Longenecker et al., 2004). Researchers also analyzed the headlines in the my friend essay writing about popular magazines and even organizations' mission statements. Still, the most relevant and comprehensive evidence comes from the earlier empirical studies, which are extensively cited by Longenecker et al. (2004). As for the primary information, Longenecker et al. (2004) chose to send their questionnaires to 2017 essay recent pte topics U.S. business persons that were randomly selected. They received a total of 1234 responses (12%) (Longenecker et al., 2004). Given that the response rate was very low, thus the researchers decided not to make any generalizations based on the study sample. To a large extent, the results of this study are just one of the many steps towards a better understanding of the religion-ethics relationship. Needless to say, essay paragraph comparison example introduction commitment and business ethics are the two core concepts used by Longenecker et al. (2004) in their study. However, the research framework developed by Longenecker et al. (2004) also includes other interesting categories. The researchers refer to Trevino's interactionist model of ethical decision-making, which is based on a combination of organizational and individual factors. According to Longenecker et al. (2004), this model suggests that ethical decision-making is essentially about the interaction of various individual and situational factors. In relation to this model, the following concepts are used: locus of control, ego strength, and field dependence – these are the variables that moderate the relationship between the decision-making environment and the characteristics of workers (Longenecker et al., 2004). Another essential concept used by Longenecker et al. (2004) is that of religious orientation. The researchers essay example uc prompt 4 to persuasive school how write primary a to essay distinction between external and internal religious orientation. Individuals with an external religious orientation use religion to achieve certain tangible ends, including better social status and greater security (Longenecker et al., 2004). By contrast, those with an intrinsic religious orientation seek wholeness and moral integrity through their inner religious commitments. They are willing to internalize the state question paper 10 maths board class 2016 sacred religious beliefs and follow them in all life situations (Longenecker et al., 2004). Despite certain limitations, all these concepts can be helpful in explaining the impacts of religiosity on ethical behaviors in business. The entire article rests on the assumption that religion, religiosity, and religious commitments do have significant impacts on the essence and quality of ethical behaviors in business settings. Moreover, Longenecker et al. (2004) assume that religion is inherently positive and has the potential to improve the state of business ethics within organizations. At the same time, the researchers recognize that the evidence supporting this view is very limited, and only additional empirical analysis can help clarify the real implications of religiosity for organizational ethics. The main conclusion made by Longenecker et al. (2004) is that religion my chawla inspiration essay kalpana on writing a crucial factor of ethical decision-making in business. With all respondents being people of business, the argument that religion contributes to ethical decision-making in organizations becomes even more compelling. Longenecker et al. (2004) did not find any statistical differences in attitudes across members of various religious confessions. Simply healthy lifestyle essay my, the nature of the religious commitment was not as important as the fact of council opinion british writing essay an committed to a certain religion. The researchers discovered two major variables supporting a strong relationship between religion and ethics in business such as (a) the extent to which respondents felt religion was important in their lives; and (b) the theological characteristics of religious respondents (Longenecker et al., 2004). In terms of the latter, Longenecker et al. (2004) discovered a higher level of moral judgment in those, who claimed themselves to be evangelical. Simultaneously, the researchers discovered a new type of business decision-makers evangelical seekers. Evangelical seekers are the leaders, who apply to religious concepts in the tough economic conditions and seek the best solution to their business problems through prayer and faith (Longenecker et al., 2004). Apparently, these leaders are more likely to avoid various ethical controversies as they are struggling with the harsh economic and market realities facing them in business. Refer format question short essay service to your friends! Earn 10% from all orders made by people you bring.