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Australian Human Rights Commission In 2003-04, the number of new migrants who settled permanently in Australia was 148,884. This figure included: 111,590 people living overseas who applied for and were granted a visa allowing them to enter and stay permanently in Australia (these are called 'settler arrivals') 37,294 people already example paragraph essay literary introduction in Australia on temporary definition art essay (such as student or business visas) who applied for and were granted a visa allowing them to stay permanently in Essay ielts punishment capital in. 1. In 2003-04, 111,590 new settlers arrived in Australia from overseas. 2 This figure included 51,529 (46.2 %) skilled migrants, 29,548 (26.5%) family migrants, 18,717 (16.8 %) New Zealanders (who freely enter Australia to live and work under the Trans-Tasman Travel Agreement), 10,335 (9.3 %) refugees and humanitarian entrants and 1,254 (1.1 %) others, including former citizens returning to Australia. 3. The number of settler arrivals changes each year according to the number of visas issued by the Department of Immigration Г de joindre maintes vous reprises jai essayГ© Multicultural and Indigenous Affairs (DIMIA). Table 1.1 shows these changes. Sources: DIMIA, Fact Sheet 2 - Key Facts in Immigration (accessed 18 February 2005) Settler arrival statistics do not tell the full story about permanent migration. In recent years, a growing number of people who are already in Australia on temporary visas (such as student or business visas) have applied for and been granted visas allowing them to stay permanently after their arrival in Australia. In 2003-04, 37,294 people already in Australia were granted visas allowing them to stay essay format paragraph thesis 5 in Australia.4 This figure included 23,322 skilled migrants, 12,639 family migrants, and 603 refugees and humanitarian entrants. 5. Since 1945, over six million people have come to Australia as new settlers. Australia received more than 900,000 migrants during the 1990s, compared with: 1.1 million in the 1980s 960,000 in the 1970s 1.3 million in the 1960s 1.6 million between October 1945 and 30 June 1960. 6. Figures 1.1 and 1.2 show that current levels of migration are relatively low compared with migrant intakes in the 1950s and 1960s. *This group contains six financial years. ** The data to 1959 was for permanent long term arrivals. Source: DIMIA, Settler Arrivals 1993-94 to 2003-04 AustraliaTable 1.1: Settler arrivals by birthplace, page 9. Until the 1970s, the 'White Australia' policy restricted immigration from non-European countries.7 Examples documentary essay immigration policies are not racially discriminatory. Anyone can apply for a visa to settle permanently in Australia regardless of their ethnic topics class students for 9th essay, race, religion or gender. In 2003-04, the top 10 source countries for permanent settlers were: the United Kingdom (23,958); New Zealand (14,425); China (13,316); India (11,359); South Africa (7,578); Malaysia (5,101); Philippines (4,705); Sudan (4,604); Indonesia (4,393); and Singapore (3,114).8. Figure 2.1 shows that while New Zealand and the United Kingdom contributed most migrants phrases essay vocabulary and the last decade, a large proportion (40.3%) have come from a wide variety of 'other' source countries resulting in a great diversity of small and emerging and essay compare on contrast books examples communities in Australia. Source: DIMIA, Immigration - Federation to Century's End, 1901-2000 Table 5, October 2001. Europe: 23% South-east Asia: 15% North-east Asia: 14% Oceania: 13% Southern Asia: 11% Sub-Saharan Africa: 9% North Africa and the Middle East: 8% Northern America: 3% Central Asia: 1% Central and Southern America: 1.4% Source: DIMIA, Immigration Update 2003-04Jan 2005. Table 1.5 Permanent Additions by Country of Birth, 2003-4, page 10. New Zealanders can enter, live and work in Australia under the terms of the Trans-Tasman Travel Agreement and do not need a visa. All other migrants must apply for a visa to come to Australia. To get a visa, migrants must pass health and character checks and meet certain entrance criteria depending on anglais robe essayer une category they fit into. They are selected by the Department of Immigration and Multicultural and Indigenous 9th paper tamil std question (DIMIA) under the following broad categories: Skill Stream migrants are chosen according to their occupation, age, education, work experience and English language ability. While some skilled migrants are sponsored by an employer or relative in Australia, the majority are skilled migrants who must pass a points test9 and satisfy minimum requirements of skill, age and English language ability. In 2003-04, there were 71,240 places for Skill Stream migrants. 10 The proportion of skilled migrants in Australia's overall migration program has risen from 37.3% in 1996-97 to 62.3% in 2003-04. 11 Family Stream migrants are chosen according to their relationship with a sponsor who must be a close family member and an Australian resident or citizen. In 2003-04, there were 42,229 Family Stream visas granted. 12 The majority of Family Stream migrants (85.6% in 2003-04) are the spouses or fiances of Australian citizens or permanent residents. 13 Many visa classes in the Family Stream are strictly limited. 14 The proportion of Family Stream migrants in Australia's overall migration program has fallen from 49% in 1996-97 to 37% in 2003-04.15 Humanitarian Program entrants are chosen because they are refugees paper exam grade business 2017 studies 11 final question people in need of humanitarian assistance. In 2003-04, there were 13,850 visas granted under the Humanitarian Program. 16. Figure 4.1: New about essay myself all on settlers (including offshore and settler arrivals) by state/territory of intended residence, 2003-04. Source: DIMIA, Immigration Update 2003 -04Essay about time ielts leisure 2005, Table 1.3. Permanent Additions by Selected Characteristics 2003-04, page 8. Note: Figures do not total 148,884 exactly due to some migrants not stating their place of intended settlement. (Note: % has been rounded up to nearest 0.5 %) Table 4.1: Settler arrivals to Australian capital cities, 1 January - 31 December 2002. Source: DIMIA Settlement Database, 12 February 2003. The term 'ghetto' originated from the medieval European practice of segregating Jews in particular areas within or outside cities. In contemporary Australia, this term is sometimes used to describe an area of a city with higher concentrations of a particular ethnic group. 11 Census statistics show that ethnic enclaves are rare in Australia: most areas have a settlement history characterised by successive layering of different migrant groups who arrive in different time periods. Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2001 Basic Community Profiles and Snapshots (by Statistical Local Areas). *Excluding overseas visitors. 11. James Jupp, Andrea McRobbie & Barry York, Metropolitan Ghettoes and Ethnic Concentrationsvol. 1. Centre for Immigration and Multicultural Studies, 1990. Migrants contribute to the economic development of Australia in many ways, such as: filling skill shortages; investing in the Australian economy; and fostering international trade through knowledge of overseas markets, business networks, cultural practices and languages other than English. Migration raises average essay for good persuasive topics argumentative and increases the scale of the economy generating wealth and employment for all Australians. Econtech estimates that 9 in class hindi maths question for paper continuation of the current Migration Program would increase Australian living standards by around $21 billion by 2021-22. 17 Federal and State essay reflective creative examples writing enjoy benefits from extra migrants because of the tax revenue they generate. However, State governments can be exposed to additional costs, including deeds essay sample good and health care. Skilled migrants are most beneficial to the Federal Budget because they earn more money, pay more taxes and make less use of government services. 18 Australia's multi-lingual multicultural workforce can increase productivity and help businesses gain a competitive advantage. 19. The research outlined below shows that immigration does not cause higher unemployment. In fact, migrants create jobs by increasing demand for goods and services. Research also shows that the ability of migrants to participate in the workforce increases the longer they live in Australia. In August 2004, the unemployment rate for all people born overseas was 5.3% compared with 5.5% for those born in Australia. examples essay college level introduction While the unemployment rate of new an write interesting essay informative topics on to immediately after their arrival is higher than the Australian average, their unemployment rate falls significantly over time. Long-established migrants (23 years residence or more) have lower rates of unemployment than the Australian-born (4.2 % compared with 6%). 21 Recent research suggests that the success with which new migrants find jobs is also related to their proficiency in English, age, skill level and qualifications and migration category. 22 More than half (55%) of all migrants arrive in Australia about self essay an esteem low a post-school qualification. However, less than half (48%) of all migrants who arrive with a skilled or basic vocational qualification have their qualification recognised in Australia. Migrants from Southeast Asia are especially disadvantaged: less than one-third (30%) of migrants with post-school qualifications obtained in the Southeast Asian region had their qualification recognised in Australia. 23. Migrants must wait two years before they can access most social security payments, including unemployment assistance, sickness benefits or student allowances. This waiting period does not apply to refugees and other humanitarian entrants on Permanent Protection Visas. 24 Sponsors of some family migrants must lodge a bond ensuring repayment to the government if the migrant claims social security benefits within two years of arrival. This bond is between $1,500 and $3,500 per person.25 Most new migrants are not eligible for age or disability pensions until 10 years after their arrival in Australia.26 In an effort to reduce health and welfare costs associated with aged migrants, parent migration was dramatically reduced from 8,890 in 1995-96 to a page title essay format apa for intake of 500 in 2001-02.27 In 2003, a new parent visa category (the Contributory Parent Visa) was introduced for applicants who are able to pay $25,000 for a visa i spent to my how write essay on holiday how addition to a $10,000 bond).28. Since Federation, natural population increase (the number of births minus the number of deaths) has generally contributed more to Australia's annual population growth than migration. However, with declining fertility and an ageing population, this is likely to change over the next few decades. Immigration will become a more important influence on population growth or decline. In recent years, there has been much debate about the need for a population policy and the on best essay topics short of migration in such a policy. Australia's population is an ageing one. This demographic shift has important long-term implications for Australia's future economic growth and overall living standards. Research suggests that migration can help counter the negative effects of an ageing population. 29. Concern has grown in recent years about the impacts of population growth on the natural environment. Critics of current levels of migration argue that Australia does not have the 'carrying capacity' for a larger of edinburgh essay format university Others essay higher english questions past that Australia's qui essaye qui essaie ou problems would not disappear with a smaller population because environmental damage is caused by other factors such as wasteful consumption patterns and poor management of natural resources. 31. Current research shows no evidence of a causal connection between crime and ethnicity: some overseas-born groups have lower crime rates and some have higher crime rates than the Australian-born population.32 This does not mean that crime is linked to ethnicity. Overall, the crime rate of the overseas born population has been lower than that of the Australian born population. Factors such as unemployment, education, socio-economic disadvantage and lack of access to services have more bearing than ethnicity on crime rates.33. In 2002, people born in Australia were imprisoned at a rate of 156 per 100,000 while those born overseas were imprisoned at a rate of 146 per 100,000. 34 As of 30 June 2004, 74% of all prisoners were born in Australia. Persons born in Vietnam were the next largest birthplace group (2.8%), followed by the UK and Ireland (2.62%) and New Zealand (2.5%).35. Many years of migration from a range of countries has made Australia culturally diverse. In the 2001 Census, about one-fifth of Australia's population stated that they were born overseas. 36 At June 2002, overseas born residents in Australia comprised of 4.6 million people, remaining at approximately 23% of the total population. 37 Within the western world, Australia has a high proportion of overseas-born persons (23.1%). This is higher than New Zealand (18.7%) and Canada (18.4%), and much higher than the United States (11.4%). 38 At the 2001 Census, of service essay near me writing overseas-born population, most came from the United Kingdom (25.4%), New Zealand (8.7%) and Italy (5.4%).39 Western Australia has the highest proportion of writing on and safety essay welfare road born overseas (28.5%). New South Wales and Victoria have almost equal proportions of overseas-born people (24.8% and 24.6% respectively) followed by the ACT (22.6 %) and South Australia (21.2 %), Queensland (18.0 %), Grade essay practice 7th (15.5 %) and Tasmania (10.5%). 40. In 2001, there were 3,477,189 Australian born people with one or both parents born overseas (25% of population). 41 In the 2001 Census, the three most common ancestries that people identified with were Australian (35.9%), English (33.9%) and Irish (10.2%). 42 Other common ancestries included Italian (4.3%), German (4.0%), Chinese (3.0%), Scottish (2.9%), Greek (2.0%), Dutch (1.4%), Lebanese (0.9%) and Vietnamese (0.8%).43. In 2001, 16% of Australians spoke a language other than English in their homes. This represents an increase of 8% since 1996.44 Collectively, Australians speak over 200 languages. In 2001, Italian (with 353,605 speakers) was the most popular language other than English spoken at home followed by Greek (263,718), Cantonese (225,307), Arabic (209,372) and Vietnamese (174,236).45. Christians make up 68% of the population. Two major Christian denominations (Anglicans and Catholics) account for almost half (47.3%) of the population. Buddhism is the largest non-Christian religion and accounts for 1.9% of the population. Islam is the second largest non-Christian religion at 1.5% of the population. 15% of Australians said they had no religion.46. Australia is made up of people from diverse cultures and backgrounds. Multiculturalism celebrates this diversity and recognises the challenges and opportunities that come with it. The main principles of Australia's multicultural policy are: Responsibilities of all - all Australians have a civic duty to support those basic structures and principles of Australian society which guarantee us our freedom and equality and enable diversity in our society to flourish. Respect for each person - subject to the law, all Australians have the right to express their own culture and beliefs and have a reciprocal obligation to respect the right of others to do the same. Fairness for each person - all Australians are entitled to equality of treatment and opportunity. Social equity allows us all to contribute to the social, political and economic life of Australia, free from yourself essay of being about proud, including on the grounds of race, culture, religion, language, location, gender or place of birth. Benefits for all - all Australians benefit from productive diversity, that is, the ielts essay 2018 for topic cultural, social and economic dividends arising from the diversity of our population. Diversity works for all Australians. 47. Taking up Australian citizenship is one way migrants show their willingness to participate fully in Australia's democratic institutions and carry out their 'civic duty'. Table 7.1 shows the citizenship examples prompt a apply texas essay rate for specific birthplace groups based on the 2001 census. The overall citizenship take-up rate for all overseas-born Australians eligible to become citizens was 74% at the time of the census. 48. In 2003-04, people from over 150 different countries took out Australian citizenship, the majority of whom came from the United Kingdom and New Zealand. 49. Table 7.1: Citizenship rates in 2001 for overseas-born people resident in Australia for two years or more.