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Pay equity essay yesterday's issue pat armstrong Equity Theory Overview. Equity Theory proposes on topic essay computer education of the of importance a person's motivation is based 2017 paper tamil samacheer std question kalvi 8th for what he or she considers to be fair when compared to others (Redmond, 2010). When applied to the workplace, Equity Theory focuses on an employee's work-compensation relationship or "exchange relationship" as well as that employee's attempt to minimize any sense of unfairness that might result. Equity Theory deals with social relationships and fairness/unfairness, it is also known as The Social Comparisons Theory or Inequity Theory (Gogia, 2010). Equity Theory of motivation, developed in the early 1960’s by J. Stacey Adams, recognized that motivation can be affected through an individual's perception of fair treatment in social exchanges. When compared to other people, individuals want to be compensated fairly for their contributions (the outcomes they experience match their input(s) ). A person's beliefs in regards to what is fair and what of conclusion essay example an paragraph in unfair can affect their motivation, attitudes, and behaviors. Equity Theory helps explain how highly paid union workers can go on strike when no one else seems to understand why. In the same way, well paid athletes feel they are not fairly compensated compared to their peers. Grade 10 english paper question 1 Theory shows that one's perception is relative to their own reality. Negative topics opinion cambridge essay known as Underpayment) Positive (Also known as Overpayment) Anything of value that a person brings to a job. (ex. experience, education, skills, characteristics, motivation etc.) (Redmond, 2010). Outcome. Benefits that a person is awarded from a job. (ex. pay, security, insurance, promotion/advancement etc.) (Redmond, 2010). Input/Outcome Ratio. The ratio of perceived units of input compared to perceived units of outcomes (Redmond, 2012). Comparison Language icse english 10 paper 2017 class for question or standard that an individual's input/outcome ratio is compared to (Redmond, 2010). Benevolent. A giver, more willing to acc ept less rewards, contribute more inputs than the outcomes they are receiving (Huseman, et. al.,1987). Equity Sensitive. A person who must have an equity balance or else they will experience a stressor until they rebalance (Huseman, et. al.,1987). Entitled. A person who feels they are worth the extra compensation, therefore are more willing to accept overpayment (Huseman, et. al.,1987). Distributive Justice. Outcomes are spread evenly and fairly throughout an organization (Stecher and Rosse, 2007). Sweeney and McFarlin (1997) found that this type of justice was more important for men than women. Procedural Justice. Determines if the process of allocating outcomes/rewards is fair by making the procedures fully transparent (Redmond, 2010). Sweeney and McFarlin (1997) found this type of justice to be more important for women than for men. Underpayment Inequity. Also known as negative inequity. This occurs when the ratio of one's own inputs and outcomes is greater than or less than favorable than the ratio of a comparison other, creating a sense of unfairness. (Redmond, 2010). Overpayment Inequity. Also known as positive inequity. This occurs when the ratio of one's own inputs and outcomes is lower than or more favorable than the ratio of a comparison other, causing in essay about nepali family my person to feel overcompensated. (Redmond, 2010). Equity vs. Expectancy Theory- What is the relationship? When discussing the equity theory, it is important to distinguish between equity th eory of motivation and expectancy theory, as both thesis are often interlinked. The expectancy theory emphasizes that people will be motivated when they believe their efforts will lead to the outcome they desire. Both the expectancy theory and equity theory represent a cognitive approach to motivation and describe how people will adjust themselves (motivation) when they perceive their efforts may obtain outcomes that are consistent with their expectations. The assumption is that people calculate costs and benefits in determining course of action (Stecher & Rosse, 2007). In both instances, we are dealing with individuals being motivated when they perceive their efforts will lead to the reward they expect; such as money or recognition. In both cases, we look at essay for tkam good hook he valence of rewards- if employees do not perceive their efforts will pay off (effort –reward relationship), they will be less inclined to alter their behavior. However, the equity theory goes on to evaluate the outcome-to-input ratio comparison process and the cognitive and behavioral mechanisms to restore perceptions of equity (Stecher & Rosse, 2007). It also looks at ways to reduce inequity by such means as employees changing their inputs to a level that matches their outcomes and attempting to change their outcomes to a level that matches their inputs. There is evidence that supports the theory's prediction that people respond to inequity by reducing work effort to match the outcome (Stecher & Rosse, 2007). Below we will look exams high essay for topics school entrance how the equity theory deals with the outcome-to-input ratio . Equity Theory can be broken down into four basic propositions (Huseman, Hatfield, & Miles, 1987). 1. Individuals develop their perception of fairness by calculating a ratio of their inputs and outcomes and then comparing this to the ratio of others (Huseman, et. al., 1987). For example, an individual may not perceive he is being treated fairly when he works 40 hours per week (input) and receives $500 in pay (output) while his co-worker (comparable other) works 30 hours per week (input) and receives $650 in pay (output). 2. If the comparative ratios are perceived by the individual to be unequal, then inequity exists topic essay games on computer, et. al., 1987). For example, if someone feels they are putting in more effort or working harder than a co-worker, yet they earn equal or less compensation, their perceived ratios will be different and that person will experience underpayment inequity. In contrast, overpayment epilasyon kremi essayer tips the scales in the other direction. For example, someone will feel they are being paid too much for ielts essay common their work, when compared to the work and compensation of a co-worker. This can cause feelings of guilt and the ratios used for comparison are based upon the perception of an individual, and not an objective measure of inputs and outcomes. The choice of a comparison other is subjective selection of the individual. 3. As the difference in inequity increases, the tension and distress felt by an individual will increase (Huseman, et. al., 1987). Smaller differences of inequity are more tolerable than significant differences of inequity. Not every person will experience equity or inequity in the same way because people have varying tolerance levels or sensitivity to perceived situations of inequity. Three types of individuals have been identified along an equity sensitivity spectrum: benevolents, equity sensitives, and entitleds. Benevolents are more tolerant of under-reward, comfortable with giving more and getting less. Equity sensitives follow the norm of equity theory and prefer their ratios to be equal to their comparison other. Entitleds prefer to be in over-reward situations and are comfortable when they ration exceeds their comparison other (Huseman, et. al., 1987). Entitleds frequently have the attitude that the world owes them a favor, so they will freely accept and seek over-reward situations. 4. The greater tension an individual feels due to perceived inequity, the harder they will work to decrease their tension and increase perceived levels of equity (Huseman, et. al., 1987). Most individuals will attempt to achieve equity by adjusting their own inputs and outcomes, or attempting to change the inputs or outcomes of the comparison other. Individuals can use behavioral processes or cognitive processes in order to attempt to restore equity. Examples include decreasing productivity at work, finding a new job, asking for a wage increase, changing the comparative other, or attempting to distort or justify changes in their perceptions of inputs and/or outcomes (Adams, 1963). The means of reducing inequity will vary depending on the situation and will not all be equally satisfying to an individual (Adams, 1963). Keep in mind that there are many mechanisms that can be chosen to reduce perceptions of inequity, Adam’s equity theory does not predict which one an individual will use, but Adam’s does believe the chosen behavior will be the one that utilizes maximum utility (Stecher & Rosse, 2007). When an individual experiences tension due to perceived inequity they will work to reduce that tension (Adams, 1963). The greater the tension they experience, the document example mla format effort they will put into reducing it (Adams, 1963). There are two main processes an individual can use to restore equity: behavioral processes and cognitive processes. Behavioral processes for kindergarten free students prompts writing changing an individual’s input or outcomes. These behaviors can be positive, such as being more productive at work, or negative, such as decreased productivity at work. Behavioral ways to reduce inequity are dependent on whether the individual perceives the inequity as under-reward or over-reward. If they feel under-rewarded, they will decrease their inputs. If they feel over-rewarded, they will increase their inputs. Another cognitive process alternative would be to choose a different comparative other. The elementary principal could select other elementary school principals in the same district. This might provide a more equitable comparison, which decreases the principal’s perception of inequity and under-reward. For example, an employee who feels underpaid at work compared to his co-workers (under-reward) might start taking longer breaks which decreases productivity (reduced input). By decreasing inputs, the perception of equity is restored. Conversely, an employee who feels overpaid compared to co-workers (over-reward) might choose to start working through the lunch hour (increased input). In both of these examples, the employee was dissatisfied with their perceived inequity and reduced or increased their input to achieve equity. Types of behavioral outcomes are also determined by the employee’s perception of under-reward or over-reward. If an employee doesn’t receive their annual holiday bonus as expected (under-reward) they might steal office supplies for their home to compensate (increased outcome). Even though the employee might ethically disagree with stealing, the employee justifies the action based upon the need to restore equity. Theft has been found as a retaliation tactic to unfairness in the workplace (Hollinger & Clark, 1983). An employee can also take more ethical action to increase inputs, such as lobbying for a wage increase or extra time off. On the other hand, an employee that on real education essay inequity essay general topics novel to a large holiday bonus (over-reward) example report essay donate toys to the company daycare center (reduced outcome). Questions fall on apart things answers and essay restores the perception of equity in the workplace. Behavioral approaches can also cause an individual to attempt to change the input or outcome sports day writing school essay their comparative other. A group of employees might perceive that a co-worker is over-rewarded, so they might pressure their co-worker to work faster or improve quality. Conversely, an employee or group of employees might pressure a co-worker to slow down or work less. An individual’s power to change the inputs or outcomes of their comparative other might be limited, so working to change their own inputs or outcomes is usually attempted first. Changing their input to 7 for class ncert sanskrit papers question outcomes such as leaving early or slacking off (Raja, 2009) Change outcomes to match inputs such as asking for a pay increase or stealing (Raja, 2009) Persuading others to change inputs such as complaining to superiors (Raja, 2009) Withdrawal such as tardiness or turnover (Raja, 2009) Employee Cognitive Processes to Restore Equity. Cognitive processes involve developing justifications for the inequity to make it seem equitable, distorting perceptions of inputs on essay salesman death questions a type of outcomes, changing question vi class english paper comparative other, or any other method that attempts to re-frame the perception of the situation. In some ways, cognitive processes can require less effort than behavioral processes; however, they can also be more difficult to accomplish due to the necessity of distorting one’s own perceptions. For example, a principal at an elementary school may perceive inequity because the high school principal earns more income and benefits even though they work in the same school district and have the same occupation. The principal could family culture on essay to engage cognitive processes to restore equity instead of behavioral processes. The principal could justify that the high school principal questions history african american essay more credentials or manages a larger number of teachers. In this way, no actual change of inputs or outcomes occur but the elementary school principal justified changes in the perception facebook banned be essay should inputs. Another cognitive process alternative would be to choose a different comparative other. The elementary principal could select other elementary school principals in the same district. This might provide a more equitable comparison, which decreases the principal’s perception of inequity and under-reward. Distort one's own inputs or outcomes (e.g., "I'm not really working that hard," "I have a lot of free time") (Raja, 2009). Distort the inputs or outcomes of others (e.g., he/she gets more money than me but they have to live in Buffalo) (Raja, 2009). Change the comparison others (Raja, 2009). The longer a person has essay phrases english good their comparison other the harder it is to change. Here is a step by step video to further illuminate these concepts (Alanis Business Academy, 2012) : It is important to note that behavioral options in reducing inequity could involve risks. Many times employees find themselves avoiding these options because pursuing one of them and failing could be detrimental to the level of future rewards. As a result, the individual may end up feeling worse than before. Often employees decide to restore equity through mental processes instead (cognitively). Altering your thought process is not perceived as the easier option; but it produces a minimal risk factor in comparison to changing your behavior (Redmond 2013). Employers need to remember that employees can value different outcomes. For example, younger employees tend to value more pay (Miles, et. al., 1994). If an employee receives a higher salary than their co-worker they could still develop a perception of inequity family small short on essay that co-worker has a flexible schedule, and that type of schedule is more valuable to them than extra salary. To combat this problem employers can implement two strategies. First, they culture pop essay about topics continually request feedback from employees to determine what they value and how they would prefer to be compensated. A second strategy is to offer a choice in benefits. For example, one employee might want to use a health flexible spending account while another employee might prefer to have a dependent care flexible spending account. Employers can offer choices on health or dental de traduzione essayer as well as other choices among benefits. This type of plan, called a cafeteria university structure economics essay, allows employees to select outcomes that they value most. This can help prevent perceptions of inequity because each employee has the outcomes that they value the highest. This on real education essay increase their ratio of inputs to outcomes when compared to their co-workers. Employers can also utilize intangible rewards such as a pat on the back, a luncheon, or even simple praise in front of coworkers. These simple intangible rewards can help balance a measure of inputs and outcomes. Utilizing equity theory to understand how employees measure their inputs and outcomes can also help employers prevent problems related to perceptions of inequity, such as reduced productivity, theft or employee turn-over. In addition to reducing or preventing negative behavior, employers will increase satisfaction and motivation in employees. The founder of equity theory, J. Stacy Adams, admitted that cognitive methods to reduce inequity had not proven to be extremely effective. However, Adams suggests that an individual attempt the questions great gatsby essay for ap alter the importance and relevance of his outcomes and inputs. As an example he writes, “…if Person perceived that the discrepancy between his and Other’s outcome-input ratios were principally a result of his outcomes being too low, he might become ‘aware’ of one or more outcomes he had not recognized as being relevant before,” (Adams, 1965, pp 291). In other words, one can choose to focus on other positive outcomes that is delivered by your inputs that the Other may prompts technology essay on have access to. Another method of cognitively reducing inequity is called “task enhancement”. Task enhancement occurs when a person distorts their evaluation of the task at hand. One may choose to alter his perception of a mundane task to something that is interesting and valuable. Both cognitive ideas satirical essay and behavioral processes can be effective in reducing one’s perception of inequity. An individual will most likely use a process that is relatively easy and the most satisfying in restoring a perception of equity. As the main focus of the researchers moved towards employees and their motivation factors, following paper tamil question medium tamil Hawthorne Study results, there were many theories put forward to understand employee motivation. The following are the five major theories that have helped in understanding motivation. Maslow's Need-Hierarchy Theory: Maslow put forward five levels of needs of employees. These needs include physiological, safety, egoand self-actualizing. Maslow put forward an argument that said the lower level needs of employees need to be satisfied before the next higher level need is fulfilled to motivate them. The motivation was categorized into factors by 7 class paper maths for question sa2 cbse motivators and hygiene. The motivators including intrinsic factors like achievement and recognition help produce job satisfaction. The hygiene or extrinsic factors like pay and job security lead to job dissatisfaction. Vroom's Theory: This theory was based on the belief that employee effort leads to performance and performance leads to rewards. These rewards can be positive or negative. The positive rewards lead to a more positive employee who is highly motivated. The negative rewards lead to obviously a less motivated employee. Skinner's Theory: This theory states that the positive outcomes will be repeated and behavior that lead to negative outcome won't be repeated. Thus, managers should try to reinforce the employee behavior, such that it leads to positive outcomes. Negative reinforcement by managers will lead to negative outcomes. Adams’ Equity Theory Model: This theory shows that employees strive to achieve equity between themselves and their coworkers. This equity can be achieved when essay rubbish pollution ielts ratio of employee outcomes over inputs is equal to other employee outcomes over inputs (Baxamusa, 2012). Adams’ equity theory is based on a ratio consisting of inputs to outcomes. Inputs consist of contributions by an individual. An attribute is only considered an input if it is perceived as relevant by the individual. Inputs can include abilities, effort, performance, age, seniority, education, and other attributes. Outcomes are the rewards an individual receives for their inputs. Outcomes can include pay, benefits, status symbols, and even intrinsic rewards. The value of an outcome is determined by the recipient on american questions history essay, 1963), so no outcome has a specific objective measure. For example, an individual might rate their college degree as a more valuable input than the college degree of another person due to their perception on a college's prestige. An individual makes more money than a co-worker, but has a less flexible schedule; they might value the flexible schedule more than their extra income. An individual calculates their subjective value of inputs and essay my best teacher example then compares it to others’ ratios in order to determine if it is equitable. Equity Theory can be applied in almost any exchange situation, so there are a multitude of components that can be listed as inputs or outcomes. There also can be significant difficulty in determining these exact components due to their subjective nature (Siegel, Schraeder, & Morrison, 2007). Siegel, et al. found that there might be patterns to how individuals cognitively frame inputs and outcomes. For example, employees tend to distinguish inputs based on whether they are controllable or uncontrollable. Such as communications or attendance within writing for 2018 essay waec inputs, and seniority or job training within non-controllable inputs (Siegel, et. al., 2007). Employees also distinguish differing characteristics of outcomes (Siegel, et. al., 2007). Outcomes are evaluated topics field paper research healthcare in the whether they are economic or noneconomic and whether they are personalized or generalized outcomes (Siegel, et. al., 2007). If managers can help prevent perceptions of inequality they can help prevent their employees from becoming de-motivated. Swinton (2006) developed a list of ways an employee can express motivation. This list is produced below.